Economic vector 2023 1(32)Download issue
INFRASTRUCTURE BONDS AS A TOOL FOR FINANCING PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION AND COMMUNAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Author(s): S.V.Fedorova, V.A. Kulikov
The article considers the formation of legal regulation, the current state of the financial institution of infrastructure bonds and the practice of their use in Russia.
Keywords: infrastructure bonds, public-private partnerships, housing construction.
USING GRAPHICAL MODELS IN RISK ANALYSIS
Author(s): A.V.Fedorova, I.Yu.Krylova, E.Yu.Bezukladova
The main graphical models of risk analysis are considered, their popularity is assessed, a comparative analysis of methods, their advantages and weaknesses is carried out, the possibility of using the Ishikawa methods, the «event tree» and the "bow tie" in risk analysis is considered on the example of Rostelecom PJSC.
Keywords: risks, risk analysis, graphical analysis methods, failure tree, event tree, decision tree, Ishikawa diagram, bow tie.
DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
Author(s): A.V.Kuchumov, E.V.Pecheritsa
The article analyzes foreign scientific literature devoted to the implementation of digital tools in the activities of entrepreneurs.
The following research methods were applied in the article: analysis of modern scientific literature of Russian and foreign authors, focused on the aspect of digitalization of small and medium-sized enterprises.
The purpose of this study is to consider the theoretical and practical aspects of the use of digital technologies by entrepreneurs in their daily work.
38 scientific articles in the field of digitalization in the work of small and medium-sized businesses were analyzed.
The study characterizes the positive and negative impact of digitalization on entrepreneurs. Among the negative effects of the use of digital tools and technologies in the work of entrepreneurs, the following can be noted: increased stress, including due to the difficulty of separating personal life from work; constant "availability" in social networks and instant messengers of the manager and employees; an excess of information received from instant messengers and social networks, and the difficulty in sorting it into important and unimportant; difficult to work online.
It is concluded that working in a digital environment requires a new organization of activities, including the need to pay more attention to planning, as well as training entrepreneurs to work in a new reality and use digital tools that simplify their activities.
Keywords: innovations, digital technologies, business, entrepreneurship, digitalization, digital transformation.
ANALYSIS OF IT SOFTWARE PRODUCTS USED BY NATURAL MONOPOLIES
Author(s): V.A.Drabenko, A.A. Smirnova
In this paper, the Russian analogues of popular foreign information technology products of the class of operating systems, enterprise management systems, database management systems that meet the requirements of natural monopolies are analyzed. Information solutions of foreign and domestic developers are compared, their source software product and the possibility of modernization are determined. Attention is paid to possible negative consequences in case of untimely transition of the enterprise to domestic software. As an example, the experience of the natural monopoly enterprise open joint stock company "Russian Railways" is considered. The necessity of using enterprise management systems is substantiated by considering the economic and mathematical model of informatization of the activities of an entrepreneurial structure, and the positive aspects of ensuring the use of software and hardware complexes.
Keywords: import substitution, domestic software, Russian railways, industry software products, enterprise management systems.
ARCHITECTURE OF COMPANIES AND BANKS IN THE FIELD OF ESG
Author(s): V.A.Chernenko, A.A.Voronov, I.A.Reznik
The article discusses the issues of sustainable development of the business environment in the context of the implementation of ESG principles. The problems of functioning of companies and banks in a turbulent environment are highlighted. It is proved that the sustainable development of the activities of economic entities depends on the close interaction of economic agents and the strengthening of the integration of all financial market participants.
Keywords: management, sustainability, financing, economic agents, ecosystem, system elements, resource potential, transformation.
MODERN APPROACHES TO DETERMINING THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF A COMPANY FOR THE PURPOSE OF ITS ACQUISITION
Author(s): A.L.Zelezinskii, O.V.Arhipova, D.V.Hodos, V.S.Burko
The investment attractiveness of a company is an important parameter that investors pay attention to when considering the possibility of acquiring a company. To date, many foreign organizations are selling their business in Russia, which is an excellent opportunity for domestic investors to acquire a profitable and liquid asset. In this regard, the determination of the investment attractiveness of the company is an urgent issue. This article discusses various interpretations of the concept of the investment attractiveness of a company, as well as the factors influencing this indicator. In addition, the paper considers modern methods for determining investment attractiveness.
Keywords: company, investments, investment attractiveness, methods for determining investment attractiveness, acquisition of a company.
CULTIVATION OF COMPETITVE AND PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED WORKFORCE IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR IN THE LENINGRAD REGION
Author(s): A.J.Vilpan, A.L.Zelezinskii, O.V.Arhipova
Workforce management is an important component of any enterprise. At the sectoral level, there is a problem of how to cultivate a workforce that would meet current needs. Agriculture is no exception in this sense. In light of import substitution strategy in the Russian Federation, it is necessary to pay more attention to the staffing of agriculture, which is now one of the most promising sectors of economic development. This article analyzes the current problem of the formation of the labor force in terms of its quantitative and qualitative characteristics, and also proposes measures aimed at the formation of a competitive and professionally oriented labor force for the agricultural sector in the Leningrad region.
Keywords: agriculture, workforce management, region, Leningrad region.
THE IMPACT OF GEOPOLITICAL RISKS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INNOVATIONS IN THE ENERGY INDUSTRY
Author(s): M.A.Liubarskaia, V.S.Merkusheva
The article deals with the transformations currently taking place in the energy sector. This area, on the one hand, is under pressure from public expectations regarding the transition to cleaner technologies and energy sources, and on the other hand, is influenced by geopolitical risks that reduce the desire of investors to invest in something new. The theoretical significance of the study lies in the identification of current problems and prospects for the introduction of renewable energy sources in the framework of innovative projects in the energy sector. Of practical interest is the structuring of the directions of influence of geopolitical risks on the implementation of innovations in the energy sector.
Keywords: energy, alternative energy source, innovations, innovative project, geopolitical risk, risk management.
EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN REFINERIES DESIGN PROCESS DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION
Author(s): V.A.Balukova, A.V.Osipenko, I.A.Sadchikov
The article formulates an understanding of the significance of the design process for the sustainable development of domestic oil refineries, considers digitalization tools in design, and makes an empirical analysis of the digital transformation of the processes of designing hydrocarbon processing facilities.
The author's vision of the evolution of digital transformation in modeling the design processes and the use of digital technologies is presented. A comparison of the processes of automation and digital transformation in design is given, the advantages and problems of changes in the design of oil refineries, due to the spread of automation of business processes, are identified. The characteristic manifestations and features of these changes are shown, as well as the impact of improving the design processes on the level of quality of design and estimate documentation of oil refineries.
There have been identified the trends in the development of digital transformation processes in the context of the progress of the multidimensional design format and the large-scale use of the spatial representation of the designed object by means of 3D modeling, the emergence of the need to plan the phased implementation of oil refineries projects and their presentation in time (4D) and the transition to a new level of the 5D format.
The primary tasks for the further implementation of digital transformation processes in the design of oil refineries are formulated.
Keywords: digital transformation, design process, design and estimate documentation, refineries.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY ENTERPRISES BASED ON ACCOUNTING FOR RES POTENTIAL IN MODERN CONDITIONS
Author(s): A.A.Artemiev, P.N.Kosarev
The article is devoted to the features of the development of energy enterprises in modern conditions. Among these features, a special place is occupied by the use of the potential of renewable energy sources as a competitive advantage. The authors analyze the transformations currently taking place in the energy sector. The theoretical significance of the study is to substantiate the need for a balance of investments in traditional and renewable capacities, which must be carried out in a coordinated manner to achieve energy security goals. Of practical interest is the analysis of the role of renewable energy producers and electric grid companies in organizational and economic relations in the renewable energy market and the wholesale electricity market.
Keywords: sustainable development, energy enterprise, potential, renewable energy source (RES), modern conditions.
INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM ECOSYSTEMS IN RUSSIAN REGIONS
Author(s): M.A.Liubarskaia, A.B.Chernomorets
Due to the active development of tourism, many popular destinations are experiencing its strong impact, including overcrowding of the tourist area, especially during peak tourist seasons, and the negative influence on the quality of the tourist experience, the environment and the local community. In turn, travelers want to get more impressions from the trip, immersion in local communities and culture, using the services of tourism ecosystems. An integrated approach to the management of tourism ecosystems and regions will solve the problems of uneven tourist flows, reduce the negative impact of tourism on the environment and support the sustainable development of the region. The article discusses the principles and foundations of an integrated approach and suggests directions for developing a strategy for the development of tourism ecosystems in the regions of Russia.
Keywords: tourism ecosystem, region, sustainable tourism development, integrated approach, local communities, ecology.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION'S PERSONNEL TRAINING SYSTEM
Author(s): N.A.Bovykina, A.V.Gerasimova, I.A.Konopleva
The article presents the results of a study of the personnel training system in a state budgetary institution of the healthcare system. The authors analyzed the personnel of the institution, identified the main problems associated with the low level of organization of personnel training, developed measures to minimize them, analyzed the results of partial implementation of the developed personnel training measures. The authors have developed recommendations for further improvement of the personnel training system, which will contribute to improving the efficiency of both employees and the institution as a whole.
Keywords: personnel, medical institution, personnel training, personnel, medical workers, qualification category, digital environment, trainings, individual units.
FORMATION OF COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE AND CORPORATE COHESION OF SERVICE STAFF
Author(s): O.V.Arhipova, A.L.Zelezinskii, D.V.Hodos
The soft skills of employees, in particular the skills of effective communication, are key factors in the success of a service enterprise. At the same time, the atmosphere in which the work of the staff is carried out plays a special role. In many ways, it is determined by the level of development of the overall eco-culture of the organization, including team cohesion as a result of the interaction of all personnel. Corporate cohesion is the basic aspect of high-quality integration between personnel, which forms the attitude among employees and consciousness in mutual assistance and empathy. The article considers an effective model of team interaction that contributes to an increase in the level of corporate culture, the conditions for the formation of the foundation of corporate cohesion of employees within the overall eco-culture of the enterprise. Particular attention is paid to methods of stimulation, motivation, providing feedback on activities, assessing key performance indicators of personnel in the service sector. As an example, a practical training program is given to form the communicative competence of employees at service enterprises, aimed at improving the corporate culture within a multicultural team, strengthening the corporate culture at the enterprise, and improving the level of guest service, leading to profit growth.
Keywords: communicative competence, service, corporate culture, corporate cohesion, personnel, training, training module.
ON THE CORRELATION OF "DETERMINISTIC" AND "RANDOM" IN IMPROVING THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THE ASSESSMENT OF THE OPERATIONAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SPORTS FACILITIES
The article discusses the issues of building economic and mathematical models for justifying all types of costs at the level of sports facilities of different types, as well as assessing the advantages and disadvantages in the process of analyzing analytical (deterministic) and probabilistic methods of designing such models. A specific example demonstrates one of the possible directions for improving the methodology for calculating the given costs, which is based on the principle of "balanced" use of both analytical and theoretical-probabilistic approaches to such a calculation.
Keywords: sports facilities, costs, cost efficiency, cost modeling, prime cost, construction, operation of sports facilities.
ANALYSIS OF THE TAX RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF IT COMPANY JSC
Author(s): L.A.Ovchinnikova, M.Yu.Saprykina
The article provides a classification of tax risks of organizations and examines the management system of internal and forecasted tax risks of JSC "IT Company" as a taxpayer. The structural divisions responsible for managing tax risks in the company are listed, the tax burden is analyzed and recommendations are developed to improve the efficiency of the tax risk management system.
Keywords: risk, tax risks, risk management, risk-based approach, tax monitoring.
THE CONCEPT OF EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING AS THE BASIS OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF ORGANIZATIONS
This article is devoted to the description of the concept of well-being of employees of organizations. The place of this concept in the categorical apparatus is determined, the difference between the concept of "employee well-being" and "corporate happiness" is analyzed. The main aspects that make up the prosperity of the staff are established. The most important "zones" of well-being have been identified. The ratio of theoretical and actual responsibility of employers, the state and the employee is investigated. A set of measures to ensure the implementation of the corporate happiness of employees is described. The question of the main standards in this area is disclosed. The importance of paying attention to the well-being of personnel is emphasized, since it, in turn, is the basis of corporate social responsibility.
Keywords: corporate social responsibility, sustainable development, employee well-being, corporate happiness, mental health.
CUSTOMS COMPLIANCE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: STATE AND PROSPECTS
Author(s): M.A.Laboskin, V.V.Nikolaev
This scientific study was carried out in order to identify the specifics of the implementation of customs compliance as a customs audit tool. The article considers aspects of the formation and variety of compliance in Russia. The work defines the essence of compliance, as well as its purpose. Based on the theoretical and legal basis of compliance, customs compliance was considered as a tool of customs audit.
Keywords: compliance, customs compliance, audit, audit services, customs audit, customs inspection, foreign economic activity.
INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CLUSTERED SMES
Author(s): N.N. Golivtsova, E.V.Pecheritsa, A.V.Likhosherstov
The article considers foreign scientific literature devoted to exogenous factors (regarding the interaction of clusters with global innovation systems) that limit the interaction of firms with global markets and value chains.
The following research methods were applied in the article: analysis of modern scientific literature by foreign authors, focused on the aspect of internationalization of cluster small and medium-sized businesses.
The purpose of this study is to consider the importance of the internationalization of clusters in a theoretical aspect.
Analyzed 52 scientific articles in the field of internationalization of cluster enterprises of small and medium-sized businesses.
The study characterizes the positive and negative impact of internationalization on clusters. The positive aspects of inter-cluster cooperation in the international space are highlighted. The factors due to which the internationalization of the cluster can be achieved are determined. The conclusion is made about the potential positive and negative impact of internationalization on clusters. The positive impacts include access to knowledge through cluster networks/relationships, observation/imitation, inter-firm labor mobility, technology diffusion, higher likelihood of being "found" by international counterparties, etc.); to a negative impact – local congestion, intense local competition, distrust between cluster members, excessive dependence on specific resources of the region, "poaching" of workers by other cluster firms, loss of technological advantage due to imitation/"theft" of technologies, etc.
Keywords: clusters, innovations, internationalization, competition..